Prater’s Theory constructs the great pyramid in a visual concept, the results from tests showing that 100 tonnes could become 300tonnes.
The images on this page are relevant to other pages on the website, which highlight the methods and the innovative equipment used in the tests for moving or lifting blocks. All methods are original. There is nothing like this equipment, the Images explain the principles, such as ramp ratios.
- 2-Degree Test – Large Circumference
- Ramp Ratios
- 7.5-Degree Slopes
- 13-Degree Slopes
- 26 & 52-Degree Slopes
- Two spool – Gearing
Images Relevant to pages
2-Degree Test – Large Circumference
Testing a 2-degree ramp with the rope on the large circumference. One man moving 0.544 tonnes.
Twenty-six men within 5-metres from the top of the great pyramid and moving a block weight of over 14-tonnes. Yes, it sounds hard to believe.
Doing the maths, or math.
One man moved 0.544kg or 0.544-tonnes on the 2-degree ramp.
14 tonnes / 0.544-tonnes = 25.7 or 26 men.
The test was carried out with the large circumference of the spool, having a diameter of only 670 mm. If the rope from the blocks attached to a small circumference of a larger spool, what weight would 26 men move on a 2-degree incline? And this is all within rage of the top of the pyramid.
Imagine a pair of jeans with the legs on a table and the hip part dangling over the side. The jeans are going to drop to the floor when they reach a point of balance, which may only take a small amount of force, pulling them in this direction. If the hip part of the jeans dangled over the back of a chair with the legs on the other side, it would take more force to pull them to the floor.
The idea of ratios came about because I needed to find the weight it takes to tip the balance of each gradient, moving the block up. This was carried out in a bedroom with small models, before sizing up the tests later.
Dropping a weight from the end of a ramp, moving the load up, gave the figures. I divided the weight dropped by the weight brought upon the slope, which provided the inclines ratio, necessary to scale the weights up. It was the only way I could think to do it. The results from the ramp tests also helped, improving the scaled-up versions of the equipment.
PF in the image is the Pulling Force. An average man pulling a rope creates a force on it between 100 and 200kg or 0.2 tonnes.
The amount of force needed to move the block up the slope, is divided into the block weight, giving the ramp ratio, and dividing the ramp ratio by the load weight, finds the pulling force. Well, that’s the theory behind it.
For this particular incline it would be 4 guys / 1 guy = R4, or 600kg / PF 100kg = R4.
For a 30-tonne block using this incline, it would be 30t / R4 = PF 7.5-tonnes. PF7.5t / 0.100kg = 75 guys.
The ramp ratio for a 2-degree slope was R1.75.
To move a 100-tonne block would take a pulling force of 13.47t, based on the A-frame 2-degree ramp test model. This requiring, 90 men.
The ramp ratio for a 7.5-degree slope, moving a 40-tonne block, based on the A-frame test model.
The slope is steeper than the 2-degree incline, and like expected, a block requires more pulling force to haul it up the ramp. The ramp ratio decreases with an increase in pitch, until it reaches 1. One being vertical.
A 57-metre section showing the ramp has the space for 100 men moving a 40-tonne block to this height on the pyramid.
7.5-degree ramp test, one man moving 0.272 kg / 0.544 tonnes, showing a 2.5-tonne block would only take <10 men.
Stone protrusions and the slope angle of the pyramid, supporting a 7.5-degree spiral ramp.
The idea of doing it like this was to limit the number of casings stones, reducing the work required to cut them back flush with the face.
Rollers, finishing at the top of the pyramid, at the right height to place the top cap.
The image of the spool used in the tests is placed over a 1.5-metre spool, drawing the top cap in place. With what I have learned carrying out the tests, I would lift it on.
The blocks getting lighter at the top was the idea of using this steep gradient, but as mentioned, due to the present-day blocks on the great pyramid aligning with a 7.5-degree ramp, a 13-degree incline has become less appealing.
13-degree ramp ratio for a 15-tonne block. The casings are said to have weighed between 10 and 25 tonnes. I assumed that 15-tonnes would be the maximum weight for a stone at this height.
A 17-metre ramp section showing, there is enough space required on the ramp to move a 15-tonne block to the end of the purple segment. The ramp doesn’t have room for the men further up the pyramid to move this size of load, but could be aided with men pulling a rope from the rear of the rig.
The purpose of the 13-degree ramp continuing upwards was to carry the small stones up for the internal structure, but I was curious to see how far up a 15-tonne block would reach.
26 & 52-Degree Slopes
Ramp ratios for a 26-degree slope, based on test using A-frame.
This image shows, blocks could move up a relatively steep ramp by inserting spools into the stonework of the structure. There is only, one problem I see with doing this, and that is, how would you arrange the spools, because there are many choices?
Ramp ratios for a 52-degree slope, based on test using A-frame.
The ratio being R1.08 and the ramp gradient, close to vertical, shows that a 25-tonne block up the side of the pyramid would take 154 men. The result from using the lattice rig on the 52-degree slope was 13 tonnes for 9.5-tonnes, giving a ratio of R1.36. In theory, a 25-tonne block, requiring 18.4-tonnes of pulling force, taking 123 men. Using a wheel may give similar results to the A-frame, but it wouldn’t perform as well.
This image shows the cap at the top of the pyramid, displaying all the small ramp tests at once and that, yes it is possible to build the great pyramid.
Now, I know for sure, it’s possible using the lattice rig, and I don’t think anyone would disagree when using two or more rigs in unison. And that’s a huge statement.
Two spool – Gearing
The weight of a car engine is around 0.5 tonnes, and this is what I lifted vertically, without effort from the side of the spool. Dropping three clay bricks from the rear of the spool also lifted it. So five men would lift a 2.5-tonne block, moving them up the side of the pyramid, without breaking sweat and doing this all day.
During testing how easy the spool rotated up the frame, this was the 3D image that came into my mind and what I call a wall spool or an insert spool. The 3D model image was created in the early days of the theory. I needed to revisit it after testing two small spools for real and seeing how easy it was to wind the 1.25-metre spool back up it’s guide ropes. This one has a diameter of 5-mertres, with a rope connecting to the grand gallery spool. A 5-metre spool wouldn’t be an issue, now I realise.
This was me (top, RHS) turning the spool from the side, with a 3D images laid over the top. It shows two insert spools, with two other spools, which would be held above within a frame and rope, connecting all four spools. Suddenly, 100 tonnes becomes 300-tonnes or more.
Combine this with the various ramp gradients, the great pyramid and all the other pyramids of Egypt become possible to construct, especially the 52-degree having the ability to lift the small blocks up the side, fast. (See 26 & 52-Degree ramps).